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 The Basic Points of English grammar (Part 2)

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John V Asia Teacher
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PostSubject: The Basic Points of English grammar (Part 2)   14.03.17 8:46


TEFL Lesson Plans

English Grammar (Part 2) is an article in a short series following Nouns, Adjectives and Verbs. Designed to help new TEFL teachers or those wanting an explanation other than from standard textbooks and contains examples and exercises, plus tips.

Singular and Plural

When speaking, we add the letter 's' to end of those words which we can see (nouns), which we can count and are more than one. Singular means one and plural, more than one.

Singular                       Plural

    One chair                   Ten chairs
        One student             Twenty students

Example

"Is that your chair?"  (Singular). "Yes, this is my chair."  (Singular)

"Are those chairs?"  (Plural). "Yes, those are chairs."  (Plural)

*Tip* - 'is' and 'a' are always singular. 'Are' and 'you' are always plural, even if 'you' refers to one.

The answers to the exercises are at the end of the article

Exercise

Exercise 1 – Fill in the correct form of singular or plural

Look for amounts when reading; the words will always state if it is one, or more than one.

Today I went shopping and I had a shopping _____ (bag) with me. I bought two _____ (carrot), three _____ (carton) of

milk and also one _____ (apple). Later, when I got home, I played several _____(game) on my _____ (computer).

Quantifiers - Much and Many

*Tip* - When we can count, we use many and if we can’t, it’s much.

We must be able to put the letter 's' onto the end of every noun and make it a plural. If we can’t, we must change the word into something we can count (quantify).

There are things we can’t count and this includes anything liquid, or things such as money, or fruit. Air and electricity are examples of things we can’t see and if we can’t see them, we can’t count them.

The word ‘water’, for example, is called an uncountable noun. We can see it, but we can’t count it. We can’t say we have two waters and so we change how much water into something we can count. The question, "how much water", becomes "how many" - bottle, litre, or cup, something we can count.

Now we can put the letter 's' on the end of our nouns, two bottles, three litres and four cups. For example, the question, "How much money have you got?" would be answered by changing much into many and saying, "How many pounds, dollars, or euros have you got?"

Exercise

Exercise 2 - Fill in the correct form with much or many

"How _____ money have you got?" the shopkeeper asked me. "Not _____" I replied. "How _____ money will I need to buy

some water?” I asked. "How _____bottles do you want?" he replied. "Not _____" I said, only two.
"Do you also sell fruit?"  I

asked. "Yes", he replied, "How _____ (fruit) do you want?" I want
bananas" I said. "How _____ (bananas) do you want?"

he asked.


*Tip* - Remember, if you can count the item (1, 2, 3 . . .) it’s many and if you can’t, it’s much.


Exercise

Exercise 3 - The story of Mr. Much and Mr. Many

Once upon a time, in a little village far away lived two old men, Mr. Much and Mr. Many. They always had problems because Mr. Much couldn’t count how many dollars he had and Mr. Many didn’t know how much money he had. They both decided to go shopping together, as Mr. Much never knew how many things he wanted and Mr. Many could never decide how much to buy.

How much or how many?

How _____ apples could they buy? How _____ salt? How _____ money would they need and how ______ dollars would it

cost? How _____ sugar did they need? How _____ coconuts? How _____ soap and how _____ meat?  

Exercise

Exercise 4 - Can I count them? Much or many


Exercise

Exercise 5 - Describe what you can see


What is the main object that you can see in the photograph?  _____ (noun)

Use two words to describe it; colour and size  _____   _____ (adjectives)

What is the noun doing? _____ (verb)

How many tree or trees are there in the photograph?  _____ is that singular or plural? _____

How many, or much leaves are on the tree? _____ (much or many)

Exercise answers

Exercise 1 - Fill in the correct form of singular or plural
(a) bag, (two) carrots, (three) cartons, (one) apple, (several) games, (my) computer

Exercise 2 – Fill in the correct form with much or many
Much money, not much, much money, many bottles, not many, much fruit, many bananas

Exercise 3 – The story of Mr. Much and Mr. Many
Many apples, much salt, much money, many dollars, much sugar, many coconuts, much soap, much meat

Exercise 4 – Can I count them? Much or many
Many eggs, many oranges, much bread, many tomatos, much tea

Exercise 5 - Describe what you can see
Tree
Green and (any of the following) big, tall, huge
Growing or standing
One tree, singular
Many leaves

Further reading: TEFL Lesson Plans Nouns, adjectives and verbs

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